Mind the intelligent machines
A humanistic approach to creative intelligence
In this article, I present a summary and extract of my essay: How to live from creativity (https://www.homoquaerens.info/). My primary aim is to highlight the need of the majority of the human population on earth to reach a matured harmonious intelligence. I believe that this is the only way to build a better society, through a fundamental change, a true mutation of cultural species living without conflict or violence. Avoiding the dangers as well as reaping the benefits of the accelerated and exponential growth of the techno sciences – the interaction between the sciences and technologies, as well as their products and services. In order to guide techno scientific growth, the creation of meaning by means of narratives, plans, norms, laws, rights and duty – as was usual – now is necessary but insufficient because it cannot be dynamic enough. Even daily life is not a static state, it is a fresh living thing and it cannot be alive if it is caught in opinions, judgements, patterns of thought and fixed mechanical values. We have to recreate continually this meaning in our ever-changing society, which is the result of the social impact of this explosive growth of the technosciences. This a task proper of a living, alert mature creative free intelligence not attached to patterns of thought. That is why it is so important to understand the ways of creative intelligence. Furthermore, due to the complexity of our society, elites are impotent to solve the problem. Therefore, we need the constant democratic intervention of a mature creative intelligence in the majority of population. I attempt to show from a fundamental approach what this maturity is, both its realisations and its shortcomings. For simplicity of expression, I present my findings as forceful statements when they are truly questions to investigate. They are not something to believe or not, but pointers to possible facts for the reader to question. When, in order to face the complexity and uncertainty of the current world, we talk about the simplicity of the origin, not the temporal origin relative to thought and matter but the creative one connected to intelligence, then words do not describe anything. They are merely symbols that can only try to stimulate attention, interest, research, to move the intelligence towards insight, that is, direct perception of the facts and the spontaneous realisation that may emerge from this perception.
A personal discovery of intelligence and liberty
When I was 8 years old, enthused after reading a brief biography of Edison, while going to school under the rain, I tried to invent something to keep me dry. After a long period of pondering, it dawned upon me that the best possible invention already existed: the very umbrella I carried – simple and effective. I may not have invented anything, but I began to experience the pleasure of looking at everything as a creation of intelligence. Since then I became more interested in questions than in answers, first subconsciously, and later actively, in understanding the creative powers of intelligence more than its creations such as knowledge and its applications, as well of all kinds of social institutions, the social fabric. I began discovering the research capacity of intelligence, not only specialised but a generalised research, present in every action. Much later I realised that this exact attitude of generalised research is a must in order for everybody to be able to deal with the complex and uncertain society we live in, ever changing as it is.
With the same excitement, two decades later, at mid-1980, found me spearheading the development of an institute in artificial intelligence, where I became a researcher for the subsequent 30 years. At the time, artificial intelligence was undergoing a period of great euphoria, so much so that it alarmed me how much a future of intelligent machines was sold. Wild claims to generate hype in order to either impress potential investors or sell products for the highest profit possible were flying left and right. I was embarrassed how the mere labelling of machines as ‘intelligent’ could devaluate the human intelligence to be compared as a mere number against the computational power of computers. What alarmed me even more was that should what they predicted come to pass, humanity would become a slave to those who possess these machines. So, besides my work on artificial intelligence, I felt the need to understand the human intelligence with its sensitive and elaborate mental perception of reality as a whole, such a necessary attribute in a global world such as the present one. Thus, I began to consider ‘artificial intelligence’ as a metaphor for a restricted instrumental form of functional intelligence, that is, as computational intelligence. Once an observed intelligent behaviour has been precisely understood and dissected, such as learning, an artificial intelligence researcher could attempt to develop algorithms to imitate it. This seems to be a possibility that is worth exploiting and researching thoroughly to extend its ability in a form of beneficial symbiosis with human intelligence. However, we should be aware that human intelligence is so much more than computation of various sorts of intelligent behaviours and knowledge in any automaton. It is more than accumulated emotions, experiences and knowledge, and the resulting thoughts, which are limited, sparse and often egocentric and conflicting. Thus, I had the insight that the great danger was not nor is, despite what so many films such as the Matrix show us, the intelligent machines, but the immaturity, short-sightedness and possible degradation of the human intelligence – to what I later call programmed intelligence – and inability to cope with the enormous power put into our hands by the techno-sciences, in particular artificial intelligence
The perception of this danger led me to deepen an adolescent intuition, springing from a statement by Catalan priest and philosopher, Jaume Balmes in his Criterion: truth is reality. As I delved deeper into it, I realised little by little that oligarchies and institutions have always tried to seize truth in order to influence – or even to dominate – others in its name. I could not accept that reality could be submitted to any power of domination. Thus, I realised as a wonderful gift, that truth, reality, could be nothing but pure freedom. It was an insight on the fact that reality does not submit to any determination, knowledge, theory or model of itself; reality never repeats itself completely, always surprises us with its ceaseless advance towards novelty. In reality, nothing can be completely predetermined. Scientific knowledge is about reality, it is a high quality model of reality; it is neither reality itself nor is the unique form of intelligence, as will be seen later. Liberty is alien to scientific method. When science meets liberty, calls it randomness or chance. For instance, the choice between quantum states, we call chance when an electron makes them. Nevertheless, freedom is present in the creative origin and in all of reality. For example, the theory of evolution cannot guarantee, that if we were to go back in time, or to an identical parallel universe, the Homo sapiens species would appear on earth. Homo sapiens have always been, and still are, a wonderful continuous creation of this precise liberty of reality, which is the source of human freedom. This reality of liberty is a spontaneous gratuitous fact without explanation or definition, solely lived through. Liberty of reality is a mysterious powerful symbol of reality, especially for our time. It is the mark and warrant of anything being real. It is the antidote against the confusion between the real and the virtual accompanying the hegemonic power of information manipulation. It gives us the necessary perspective and corresponding clarity and courage to face a world in continuous change. It is usual to believe that reality imposes itself upon us, but it is different. It is the models of reality we create that impose upon us, that bind us. True reality sets us free. Only united by sharing reality’s freedom can we be free. Therefore, we can be flexible, efficient and creative embracing our needs and interests in an ever-changing world; aware but not submitted to domination power, to desires, expectations and fears, and so free of the suffering this submission produces. Besides, this domination power is the most dangerous drug seriously damaging creative intelligence. Later I confirmed this discovery of reality’s liberty by the study of the great heritages of human intelligence and wisdom, containing necessary teachings for the modern world. Most important of all, this creative freedom of reality is only realised and enjoyed in the liberty and creativity of intelligence, impossible to possess or to subdue. True intelligence is the agency of this freedom. Nothing can touch or kill that freedom. Furthermore, the exercise of this creative intelligence is self-rewarding, finds motivation in itself. As a child of liberty, creativity cannot be reduced to any model of it such as the powerful models of artificial intelligence, a mere sequence of causes or procedure; it has a spontaneous and unexplainable component. Only creativity can realise this freedom. Only freedom carries the truth, love and beauty, the energy of intelligence. Liberty, intelligence, true understanding and order go together. Thought, always conditioned, can never truly be free, and thus cannot seek the truth in reality. This personal discovery of liberty and intelligence led me to deepen my studies into it. Aware that creative intelligence being primordial like the liberty of reality, no one can describe it- it is. It is a living thing, moving, active. All we can say and think about it, even when contradictory, describes nothing, is just a pointer trying to help discover and live it.
Intelligence is not exclusive to humanity itself, but instead is the activity of reality itself, reality’s free creative agency operating everywhere, even in physics’ elementary particles, as spontaneous organizing agent of the universal web of interactions. Freedom is the mark of intelligence. This primordial free intelligence always acting in the present moment, distinguishes itself from consciousness after present action, which I take as a possible quality of some intelligent acts, within certain intelligences such as the human intelligence. Intelligence is material and so matter is intelligent. They have a common source, they are are not separated in our models of reality. For instance, the human intelligence has a mutualistic reliance upon the body, particularly the brain. Changes in one affect the other. Therefore, the sensitivity of the body is a need for intelligence. Intelligence, as agency in the brain, has already deeply cared and improved the structure and activity of the brain all along its evolution. For instance, speech, a central capacity of human intelligence, has structured part of our brain. Furthermore, neurotransmitters, that fundamentally affect the entire functioning of the brain respond continuously to what a person knows, to what he thinks, and to what all this means to him. However they are not completely mutually dependant, there is an element of liberation in their relationship, as such the chemical reactions in the brain are not all that constitutes the human intelligence, and changes in one influence, but do not determine completely, the state of the other. That is, there is always freedom present in every interdependency, as intelligence shows in its creative acts and insights that are in some ways unexplainable. “Mens sana in corpore sano” was the Latin saying. Caring and learning about intelligence is at the reach of everybody as shown below, and is one of the more accessible ways of caring and learning indirectly about the brain. The healthy development, care and adaptation of the brain to age, even changing our mentalities from violent to peaceful, something so necessary to build a better society, the main task of intelligence, show the power of intelligence in maintaining our health. Intelligence is simple, without divisions, and because it is so simple, it can function in the most complex fields. The creative freedom of intelligence brings about diversity, ever-new forms of order, thus exploring all possibilities for existence and creativity, especially for life and its survival. Because it is free, reality’s intelligence is one and indivisible, constantly in operation throughout the universe. If the ancient category of ‘being’ suggests and responds to the desire of permanence, of security, of knowledge, of certainty; creative intelligence instead corresponds to liberty and creative agency always in the present, an evident need in the actual world. Paying attention to it is the best way to deal with this ever changing world. Various forms of intelligence – of plants, animals, humans – are distinctions of the mind created by speech and thought. Among these various forms, I will focus on the human conscious intelligence that stands out. The separation and individualisation of reality, in particular assigning attributes such as intelligence to individuals, is characteristic of thought, and the psyche. In its need and search for security and purpose the thought creates a reference centre, the individual with its needs and interest that must be satisfied: my body, my needs, my house, my belongings, my security, my status, qualities, attributes, virtues, judgments, beliefs, fame, desires, ambitions, fears, sufferings… ‘I’, ‘me’, the root of division, violence and fear. This ‘I’, as a separate entity, the severed lonely needy self, is a creation of the intelligence of need, one of the two levels of intelligence we will see later. It seems to be the most important and real thing to us, very concrete, unique, omnipresent, always attracting all attention, but it only exists in our minds. In fact, it is a psychological function for survival, the needing and craving level of intelligence. We should observe that self in operation without any choice, without any distortion, in order to learn about it. On its right functioning – not as separated entity, a master but dissolving the entity into a pure function serving free intelligence – it depends humanity’s mental health, nothing more and nothing less. Nothing in reality has entity in itself, and everything is a crossing of interdependencies. Although there is a strong tendency to individuate or isolate a self-centred intelligence, we should understand the human intelligence not exclusively individualized, but see it as symbiotic agency. That is, intelligence as a collective force constituted through the intra-actions with all other forms of existence –each with its own autonomy and intelligence – within the unity, beauty and simplicity of the cosmic or universal intelligence. In fact, only universal intelligence, the daughter of the liberty of reality, is truly real. (I define intra-actions as primordial interactions that constitute each existence, as opposed to external interactions between already established existences). In fact, intra-actions are primordial, and from them intra-acting existences or systems emerge. Giving primary attention to intra-actions in the unity of intelligence rather than to individual systems means a reversal in our usual way of observation and formulation of phenomena. Intra-actions constitute each form of existence, its autonomy, its autopoiesis. Thus, we should understand the human intelligence as an agency in this general model of reality to access this web of intra-actions. Intelligence is primarily collective and evolves, grows and extends through communication and cooperation between human, with the environment, and with tools and machines. In this symbiosis lies the power of human intelligence, not in the intelligence of individuals, even of elites, progressively impotent to face the complexity and uncertainty of current world. Intelligence distinguishes from individualised thought through its unity and collective intra-actions. The individualistic view on intelligence is misleading; intelligence is in constant operation in the intra-actions. Without communication and cooperation there cannot be true intelligence. Furthermore, a supposed individual super-intelligence without a good symbiosis capacity would become a monster, such as shown by Frankenstein’s monster, in the popular novel ‘Frankenstein’; and such could occur to the promised singularity super-intelligent machines. In particular, to understand the future evolution of human and artificial intelligence, one must investigate its intra-actions, and how one affects the constitution of the other, starting with the human intelligence that creates the artificial. For this I will consider human intelligence from a humanistic and cultural perspective complementary to the natural functional approach of the cognitive sciences. The survival of mankind depends more than ever upon our flexible cultural capacities to change our current unsustainable style of life. I focus upon five powers of the human intelligence that I call Creative Constitutive Capacities. They are: interest in reality, semiotic communication, subsidiary symbiosis, generalised research and liberation. These are the genetic heritage from millions of years of biological and cultural evolution. They are the powers that we are born with, that unceasingly constitute us. Only free a balanced intelligence allows living in what is actual rather than living in the conceptual or ideal world with its hypocrisies and deceptions. Therefore, we are communicative and symbiotic intelligences; understanding oneself goes together with understanding the natural, cultural, social environment. These five capacities are sufficient to face all challenges and create a good life for all. Removing all obstacles and denouncing their adversaries as well as promoting their social development from birth by permanent education should be our main concern. What is education other than helping the emergence and development of these capacities of intelligence? An education without the hindrance of competition, which engenders psychological fear with all its horrible consequences such as dominion will and violence. Furthermore, to be concerned with free sharpened strong unitive intelligence instead of divisive knowledge is to be concerned with the total understanding of actual humankind, peace and wellbeing. Primary concern with intelligence and its unity rather than knowledge and its divisions, imposes nothing on people, rather makes them free and creative, prone to concord and peace rather than discord and violence.
The creative hand
I use the human hand as a symbol of intelligence’s creative agency, the hand that makes us human, a true creative act. Learning to learn or creative learning, the most important learning is learning about intelligence, about the way intelligence is learning all the time by means of its creative capacities. Not only this, but our survival and evolving identity, our social learning and creativity, are both dependant of human intelligence, dependant mainly on how we employ this hand, which is a particular form of the one intelligence, the child and agency of the reality‘s creative liberty. . Because the exercise of this hand is self-rewarding, it does not depend exclusively on its uncontrollable success; it can be ambitious and risky while enduring frequent failures. I correlate each finger of this creative hand with a creative capacity. The mnemonic power of this hand and its fingers as symbols of intelligence and its creative capacities has helped me keep them in mind and to reflect their unity of action; and so I hope it will also help the reader. I present them very briefly, and then note some of the aspects of their intra-dependence. Interest in reality: interest is the vector energy of the human intelligence. Interest in reality makes the mind attentive and quiet, liberates it from the distractive flux of thought. I represent it with the index finger, the finger of attention, the one that points to things of importance that motivate and guide our actions. Interest is what makes the human intelligence a sensitive, emotional and evaluative intelligence. Only two facts must be considered in order to capture its importance. First, because the interest, instead of pointing to reality, to the common good, usually points to the individual or collective ego, it perverts the rest of the creative capacities, generating a society of domination and exploitation, with its addicts to this drug of violent power that ruins democracy. Second, during the European renaissance, the interest changed direction and stopped pointing to the past to repeat it, and instead pointing to the future to create it. This change caused the second great cultural mutation of humanity, leaving the agricultural era behind. Semiotic communication: its first exponent is speech based upon articulated sounds, the signs that convey meanings about a referent either present or not. I represent it with the middle finger, the mediator and the axis of the creative hand. Speech frees us from the basic stimulus response mechanism for animal life, making us conscious, especially of our liberty. Between stimulus and response, we interpose speech, with its richness of meanings, the most wonderful of the human intelligence powers, opening the imagination so the human intelligence can grow beyond the limits. Semiotic communication should not be confused with the use of a given language such as computers do. It is mainly creative and metaphorical; in fact, it creates metaphors continually: it relates expressions of meaning to the domain experience and then translates them to other domains, thus showing the unity of intelligence. Language is full of corporal metaphors, for instance I could say ‘I see’ to transmit to another person that I understand. Thus, the human intelligence is primarily a linguistic intelligence, as are the models that it creates, among them artificial intelligence, which differentiates both from pure animal intelligence. Everything that affects communications transforms human life. Therefore, it is important to thoroughly investigate the current impact of information and communication technologies on human communication. Being aware that real communication is an intra-action between bodies with all their senses, it requires the full presence to each other of those in communication and involves in its activity the rest of creative capacities. For instance, without liberation or detachment of one’s opinions, there cannot be true listening. It cannot be confused nor reduced to an interchange of information so prone to all kind of communication perversions like fake news. Beware those who control communication for they dominate the world. Subsidiary integral symbiosis: it is life in common capacity, the capacity of cooperation, of mutual service and care, which I represent with the ring finger. Together with communication, they constitute the human intra-action and with the environment, natural and artificial. The individual as an isolated entity is an abstraction of the mind. Nowadays, intra-actions with intelligent machines have become a must. Managing the intra-action with the environment is the most common feature of the hundreds of different definitions of human intelligence. Individualism, self-centred interest, self-concern, is its perversion that modernity promoted after confusing it with the necessary individual autonomy. The proposed creation of trans-human individualism (i.e. cyborgs) is an example of the hazardous conflictive prevailing individualism, separating those who can pay as superior. Individualism generates conflict, corruption, which ruins symbiosis and so intelligence, and then life becomes a misery, loneliness. Here the capacity of liberation from individualism becomes necessary for a truly non-conflictive symbiosis. I call it subsidiary symbiosis to note that it can no longer be hierarchical as it was in the pre-industrial past. Creativity requires that each human organisation has the maximum possible autonomy that it can exercise responsibly, in intra dependence with other institutions, beginning with the individual autonomy and continuing until the United Nations. Subsidiary symbiosis can also help facing social complexity Generalised research: I represent it with the little finger, as it is the least developed and started grow systematically from the renaissance onwards, but is still restricted to certain specialities, specifically techno-scientific ones. Questioning the known in order to truly understand, and open to the unknown in order to create, is the true dynamic of the human intelligence in which there is no authority, in which there may be total failure.. Creative learning is this constant movement of research from the known to the new unknown without accumulating, keeping the intelligence always fresh. Research and true learning are inseparable; otherwise, we simply have knowledge acquisition at the reach of machines. There is no endeavour into which the researcher cannot productively stick their nose into. The fear of risk, to what they will say in the face of mistakes and haste, are the primary obstacles to the research attitude. Currently, the research attitude is not only necessary in a limited number of specialities, but in all activities and by all, if we do not intend to end up displaced by machines, more powerful than us in the linear use of knowledge. Liberation capacity: this is the most specific and powerful capacity of human intelligence. It originates in the liberty of reality; it is unexplainable, irreducible to information processing. Understanding that to liberate does not mean to deny attachments and seclude one’s self, but instead to embrace these attachment while not becoming submitted to them. I represent it with the thumb that the Romans previously used as a sign of life or death in reference to the gladiators. Now it refers to all of humanity. It is the ability to end all submission and fear, both internal and external, liberation from suffering. Liberation from what is internal or relative to the ‘me’ the ego, constituted by desires, expectations and fears. That is, free of the bounding pursuit of pleasure and the inevitable pain that comes with it. Also is the liberation from one’s submission to emotions, feelings, knowledge and thoughts. It is the hygiene of the mind liberating it from the accumulated past, the ‘me’, meeting everything anew, from moment to moment. Especially when the mind submits itself to the masses of propaganda and information consumerism, the new way to create slaves. A mental hygiene needed for personal and social health as much as was corporal hygiene in the past. This liberating capacity also allows us to free ourselves from external submission to the mechanisms of domination and exploitation. For instance, future behavioural prediction, which leads to domination over the population made possible by artificial intelligence technologies such as Big data, as will be explained later. Therefore, liberation is the most powerful and crucial of our capacities. It puts in contact with the origin, the source of energy and love. It allows looking presently at things, as they actually are, free of distorting conditionings such as fears, desires or expectations.
Intra-dependence between the creative capacities: we cannot properly understand or exercise these capacities without using them while mindful of their intra-dependency: the assistance of the other capacities in the continual functioning of each of these five capacities. This is intelligence’s unity, which we cannot find in individual’s knowledge, often diverging and conflicting. So, without interest, the other capacities lack the energy to function. Without the proper functioning of the rest of the capacities, especially of research and liberation we cannot discover our true interest, then interest is reduced to animalistic instincts, and moved by desires, expectations and fears; it is no longer directed towards reality but rather towards the ego, causing division, conflict and violence. Thus, it becomes short-sighted and selfish, corrupting the rest of the capacities. Communication can no longer be sincere, symbiosis becomes domination, research becomes at the service of the highest bidder and liberation makes us insatiable in our greed. However, liberated interest is the immense loving energy of intelligence. Common interest, communication, symbiosis and the liberation of the individualistic selfishness makes team research and creativity possible, which we should value much higher than individual research in a world that is so complex, uncertain and in perpetual change, where the individual becomes increasingly impotent. This would reduce the pressure to increase productivity of individual research, so pernicious to the mental health of researchers as well as the quality and creativity of their research. A few years ago, a study on the quality of publications in medical journals revealed that 85% of published results were not entirely reliable. Research must be directed by a strong interest in reality, compassion and love for one’s subject rather than merely pure curiosity. Curiosity is easily put at the service of plutocracy and imperialism, as the history of the techno sciences shows. Nowadays, it allows universities to be managed as businesses. Curiosity can cure cancer as well as create the atomic bomb, can go to the moon and leave malaria research second. To summarise, we must stress the importance of the liberation capacity, the clamp of the creative hand, which allows the other creative fingers to work to their greatest capacities. That is the central role of education. Thus, interest can reach its greatest extend – unconditional compassion and love; communication can be absolutely sincere and trusting to the point of silent communication or communion; subsidiary symbiosis can become unity in love, care and service; research reaches the pinnacle of team creativity and is put at the service of all of humanity and life in general. Furthermore, to this free loving intelligence, perception of facts brings spontaneous action, so avoiding the intervention and tendency of thought to argue and postpone action, even substituting it with an argument. To engage deeply in the harmonious development and command of these intra-dependent creative capacities, is the condition for understanding the character of our epoch allowing the mastery of oneself and society and therefore allowing for human flourishing.
Two levels of human intelligence
Now I propose to distinguish two levels of human intelligence, two ways of intelligence of this one reality. The first level I call the Intelligence of Need, the conditioned intelligence, the intelligence of survival, of utility, of birth and death, of hunger and thirst, of pleasure and pain, of means and ends, of space and time, of becoming, of evolution, of cause and effect, the intelligence of thought, tending to cling to patterns of thought. It is the intelligence of the observer and the observed, the reality before us, separated, consisting of temporal external subjects and objects relative to our environment, needs and interests, dependent upon our senses, capabilities, and extended by instruments and machines. A thinking intelligence forever pursuing objectives in time, it creates whole cultures, increasingly complex and accurate models of reality, theories and all kinds of knowledge, extremely comprehensive and powerful, in particular those of the technosciences. They are an access to reality so necessary to us, and so powerful that we tend to identify them as reality itself, ignoring thus true freedom. However, no matter how complex, they are still merely models, similar to that of the tick, with only two senses that capture the heat and sweat of mammals in order to parasitize them, it all the tick needs, however, is limited in its viewpoint. We should avoid considering knowledge as a discovery, as a precise description uncovering a reality already structured independently of us. What we often call discoveries are actually the creation of our knowledge, for which we are responsible, models created by this powerful intelligence of need, extended by instruments and machines. This confusion of reality with its models, of intelligence with the knowledge and thoughts it creates, entails the search for the security of models, instead of realising that security is not in the knowledge and thoughts around knowledge but in liberating capacity of intelligence, the second level of intelligence. Therefore, the so common misleading attempt to a complete control of reality by means of models or knowledge and the corresponding thoughts entails strong attachment to our models as possessions, so lessening our powers of liberty and creativity, and being the cause of all sorts of suffering, conflicts of interest as well as violence.
Depending on the degree of intensity and priority of each creative capacity of the others, we can distinguish two primary uses of the Intelligence of Need. On the one hand, functional intelligence: the instrumental abstract intelligence specific to the technosciences. A world of objects, tools, instruments, machines: where interest takes the form of curiosity about the functioning of the world; communication creates the functional-mathematical meta-language based upon measurements, magnitudes and calculations; symbiosis is simply collaboration; research becomes highly specialised and methodical; and liberation is limited to abstraction of qualities and values that could hinder interest in the functioning of reality. Due to its enormous success, this is currently the most developed form of intelligence, to the point that it creates machines in order to extend itself. However, no matter how developed is functional intelligence, when isolated from the other forms of intelligence, by itself it lacks full sensitivity, so cannot realise intelligence as master of life. On the other hand, the axiological intelligence, the intelligence of body and hart, centred on the creative capacity of interest in reality, of meaning and beauty, of values, of humanities and fine arts. When interest is mainly sensitive, artistic, evaluative and communal. Communication creates or updates the stories that motivate and guide actions. The integral symbiosis, the social cohesion, collective activities, the sense of team, mutual care, become central; research is similarly mainly sensitive artistic and valorising, attentive to self-knowledge; and liberation frees us from established values, enabling the creation of new values to face the new needs that arise due to techno-scientific growth. This makes liberation a must for axiological creativity, being it of most importance in an ever-changing world. Axiological intelligence is an intelligence of sensed contrasts, of values against counter values, such as good against bad. Primordially it senses spontaneously the need to face bad, and this propels it to realise good, rather than the inverse. For instance, to realise the value of attention the best way is to start confronting the counter value, inattention its tricks and nature, i.e. indolence, negligence, self-concern, and self-contradiction. That is, inquiring in order to be fully aware of the counter value, we can be free of it and so realise spontaneously the value, i.e. inquiring and confronting falsity to be free of it we open to truth. Only when you deny the counter value completely by giving full attention to it, so being free of it, then the value is. This is not a conceptual or ideal operation of thought opposing concepts, but an actual realisation of free sensitive axiological intelligence. Values are not concepts but actual effective actions. For this to be creative of new values there is need of liberation from attachment to stablished mainly conceptual values . Although functional intelligence, particularly artificial intelligence, can simulate the working of values, it lacks the sense of contrast of axiological intelligence. In fact, artificial intelligence lacks sensitivity and without sensitivity, there is no real intelligence. Axiological intelligence does not reduce to functional intelligence due to their different formalities or ways of working. Erroneously considered as a fixed set of values or virtues proper to a supposedly given human nature, axiological intelligence has been underdeveloped and neglected as creative intelligence, in crisis since the Renaissance, incapable of meeting its duty of managing the growth, new needs and social impact of the technosciences, leaving them mainly at the hands of plutocracy and imperialism. Thus, the enormous economic growth and countless benefits brought by the growth of technosciences were not distributed according to the principles of an updated social justice. To foster axiological research in collaboration with technicientific research, it has become an urgent need to face the social impact of technosciences, not a posteriori, as is still the case, but foreseeing and directing its effects. For instance, a much-needed task of axiological intelligence is to decide about artificial intelligence, about what it is right to automate and what not to, rather than leaving the decision to functional intelligence that solely cares about efficiency.
The second level of intelligence is what I call Liberating Intelligence, the realisation of reality’s freedom, an unoccupied sensitive silent fully free humble immediate intelligence of facts, of truth, of reality itself. The intelligence that liberates us from absolutizing the creations of intelligence of need, thoughts and distinctions such as subject and object, the inner and the outer, ‘me’ and ‘you’, to become conflicting separations or divisions and so realising the unity and joy of intelligence. Therefore, it liberates us from identification with the intelligence of need, with its models of reality such as the ego. It is a spontaneous immediate pure empty creative intelligence, not of the order of knowledge and thought like the intelligence of need. It allows a strong attention and so direct observation – without the separation of a ‘me’ – of the self-centred movements of thought and its ambitions, competitiveness, fallacies, loneliness, fear, jealousy, despair, anxiety, guilt. Observation without judging, dissolving conflicts and suffering, enjoying happiness, the root of its power. It is thus the main source of brain and mental health, avoiding becoming slaves of our emotions and thoughts. When not ignored, its liberating agency transforms the brain, making of it an instrument of love, peace and joy. It is the intelligence of the present or the actual, neither of the past nor the future, so free of time. It is precisely this free intelligence of the present, the actual, which liberates us. It is intelligence of the freedom of reality, of the creative origin, of simplicity, of unity and wholeness, of love, of joy and peace, of compassion, of wisdom. It connects us spontaneously with reality without mediation of words or thoughts, without divisions or separations, without consciousness, without a ‘how’, without a will, without good and evil, without causes and procedures (i.e. to enjoy a flower or a sun set without the interposition of thoughts, without the mental separation from it, without identifying ‘me’ and ‘it’). It allows a fresh spontaneous observation and understanding without divisions, without a ‘me’ with all its conditionings, its accumulated experiences. This is a difficult but worthy practise in human relations, in deep listening and silent communication realising the unity and beauty of intelligence, without a separated me, meeting the other directly without the interposition of images or thoughts about him and me, the true way to avoid conflicts. The liberation intelligence is the specifically human, profound level of human intelligence, centred upon the capacity for liberation, impossible to describe or model. On it depends the freedom and quality of intelligence of need shunning every form of violence. The full extent of it changes completely our brain and the understanding about the intelligence of need letting its good aspects function, avoiding unintelligent thought and the sufferings of an ever-thinking intelligence of need –both, functional or tecnocientific and axiological or sensitive – dominating over the intelligence. Therefore, the intelligence of need should be active only when required, rather than dominating the mind, impeding the quietness needed for liberating intelligence to operate. Therefore, it is misleading to treat intelligence mainly as a means of production, of controlled innovation; creativity, the best of it, comes unexpected, gratuitous, an act of freedom without the experiencing and control of the self; control would kill it. Liberating intelligence is nothing related to the ‘me’, nothing to acquire, nothing to discuss or to do for it, nothing to achieve, but a subtle gratuitous fact of human intelligence asking for quiet enjoyment in spontaneous gratuitous insightful creative loving acts of daily life: an intelligence of insight. It is always operative for good as well as bad, love or insatiable greed, the latter when it goes unnoticed or ignored, when dismissed by a self-centred intelligence of need. Through permanent education, we should recover the teachings of millenary worldwide spirituality traditions about liberation intelligence, learning from them for our time. Aware that they can only offer pointers to discover and realise reality’s unity and the freedom of liberation intelligence, rather than believes, knowledge or recipes for a good life, goods proper of the intelligence of need not of liberation. We should not confuse liberation with free will, the ability to choose between different possible courses of action unimpeded. Free will belongs to the intelligence of need, a psychological mechanism. Only spontaneous action emerging from direct contact with reality’s freedom, from clear understanding, from mature liberated intelligence of facts, from insight, is truly free action rather than choose between different options. Above all, Liberating Intelligence gives us the sense of reality, of the untouched by time, by knowledge, by values that is, freedom; it puts us in direct and immediate contact with the origin, with reality’s creative freedom and the unity, depth, totality and simplicity of its intelligence. It unites the known with unknown. The unity of diversity, concord, even consilience should not be look for in knowledge and thought, which are means and tools of intelligence, always fragmented, conditioned, conflictive, but in the unity and clarity of intelligence grounded in liberating intelligence, the silence of the ego, individual and collective, the end of fear and violence resulting from division. Only from the foundations can we face fundamental human facts like violence based on self-centred intelligence of need. Only the generalised insight of liberating intelligence can reverse the world’s violence into peace. It makes us feel one with the whole reality by liberating from the will, from desire, from time, from all division, from the ambition to be somebody. Going deep into it, with great interest, is actually the essence of meditation, the best way to face death, abolishing life and death division and so the fear of death, depriving death of meaning. We are this one mysterious freedom of reality, rather than separated individuals identified with the models of reality we create, especially the ego. In the words of Albert Einstein: “The fairest thing we can experience is the mysterious. It is the fundamental emotion which stands at the cradle of true art and true science”. Furthermore, meditation, contemplation of nature and beauty on the one hand, and unselfish loving action on the other, are two specific powerful ways of exercising liberating intelligence. In it, the human intelligence finds the energy, peace, rest and unconditional service and enjoyment of life. Only through it, the cleansing of the mind from the accumulation of time, of knowledge and so renewing it can be spontaneously realised – making it free, fresh, continuously reborn, quiet and peaceful without conflict, so important in the ever-changing violent current world. To create a new culture of concord, realising the unity and beauty of reality’s intelligence. While the intelligence of need asks for a strong brain activity and focus, liberating intelligence requires the quietness of the brain. Therefore, the hegemony of of the intelligence of need is an impediment to the liberating intelligence. Although covered by the intelligence of need with its constant demands and too often unconscious or half-asleep, waiting to be discovered for a full awakening, liberating intelligence is always operative, i.e. it can surprise us with a eureka while we enjoy a bath. In complementary contrast to the Intelligence of Need, the Liberating Intelligence is not a model or theory-dependent goal-oriented intelligence, it has nothing to achieve, to struggle for, nothing to know, produce or accumulate. However, it gives to intelligence the freedom for a truthful observation of fact and action. It allows us listen to each other without interposing accumulated images of each other, without divisions, i.e. ‘I’, ‘You’ and ‘It’. When there are goals and the ‘me’ present, or even when we fixate ourselves with a theory, no matter how unselfish, sublime or transcendent we believe the goals and theory, the thinking intelligence of need dominates the action, rather than liberation intelligence with its total freedom, spontaneity, truth, peace and quiet happiness. Only it with its immediate understanding of the present facts dissolves the very hard problems of life such as fear and violence. Liberation does not come with knowledge but with strong loving interest in reality’s freedom. It is inquiry towards the unknown in communication with other inquirers. Liberation allows us to enjoy the flexible, balanced, harmonious and beneficial exercise of the constitutive creative capacities, that is, an intelligence without divisions, fragmentations like the ego, the self as an entity apart, and its conflicts. Therefore, on the one hand, it lets intelligence of need go further than just thinking, to work with free insight, and create high quality models of reality without absolutizing them. On the other hand, avoids becoming what I will next very briefly describe as programmed intelligences. Its liberating powers make it possible to not become or even remain attached to the models –functional and evaluative – created by the intelligence of need. It avoids absolutizing differences into separations and wanting a complete control of reality by means of models, with all the conflicts and suffering it entails. In a healthy human intelligence, there is no opposition nor should be competition at all between need and liberation. They go together acting in the present. One has not to choose between the two. They are two aspects of the same indivisible intelligence – one evident, the other subtle – and liberation mainly manifest itself in the good functioning of the intelligence of need not creating division. The more quiet we are and so active liberating intelligence can be, the more the intelligence of need can function logically, effectively, sanely, healthily with knowledge without becoming an end in itself.Liberating Intelligence makes flexible, effective and creative the Intelligence of Need. This becomes clear if we see intelligence as a collective fact. That is, liberating intelligence allows the intelligence of need evolution by letting it to have the creative freedom necessary to expand and create new models of reality, opening new possibilities for human life, for better or worse.
The need for harmonious intelligence
Specialities, so necessary in our complex world, mean fragmentation of knowledge, division to the point of possible conflicts. Therefore, knowledge, no matter how large and developed, cannot be the foundation of human life. However, that would not be the case if we pay attention to intelligence from where the knowledge emerges through the creative capacities of intelligence, especially communication and symbiosis. In the unity of intelligence, we all could join and cooperate. Everything can be approached from the three dimensions of intelligence – functional, axiological or liberating. Due to the unity of intelligence, in whichever form of intelligence they are operating the other two. For example, functional intelligence is not alien to values and beauty, not axiological to the functional model of the universe. The technosciences are driven not only by the functional intelligence but also by axiological intelligence, which allows the realisation of values conducing too social well-being in general and in particular a strong team symbiosis, so necessary for actual research and large organisations. Liberating intelligence avoids absolutizing and so misunderstanding the other two. It not only allows a greater power of abstraction in the other two but also allows them to use their creativity and pure gratuitous interest in reality to the maximum; by liberating both functional and axiological intelligences from the seduction of selfish individualism and domination powers responsible of the terrible social inequalities. Without it, knowledge, moral norms, declarations of principles, value postulates and laws, no matter how well thought out and impeccable they may be, quickly become perverted under this strong seduction. Besides, greedy consumerism makes unsustainable our style of life. Furthermore, only liberating intelligence makes us truly free, it liberates us from the fixations, determinations or self-determinations, divisions and conflicts, due to attachment to knowledge for domination and exploitation. Liberating intelligence makes us extremely flexible, efficient, highly creative, and able to work in strong teams and so well adapted to our world so complex and in continuous change. Each form of intelligence is like a voice in the harmony of intelligence, liberating intelligence being the bass voice, the necessary foundation of the harmony assuring as well as enhancing the beauty of the other two voices. Strictly speaking, only harmonious intelligence, operating without the sense of division is true real intelligence, not an idea but the fundamental lived fact, as it is the mastery of life. For that functional and axiological intelligence, the intelligence of need should be at the service of the flourishing of liberating intelligence. Then the intelligence of need works only when required, logically, creatively, sanely, objectively, healthily without violence. Creating new harmonies between these three voices for each situation, here and now, is the greatest endeavour of human intelligence, the goodness, felicity of life overcoming confusion, disorder and violence. As in good harmonies, the dissonances must lead and reinforce the consonance. This is the task before us, not in any way easy but necessary, a question of life or death, and we have all we need to accomplish it. However, the very dangerous current battle between autarchic states, especially between USA and China for the leadership of technosciences as domination power, shows their misunderstanding even ignorance of the real efficiency and beneficial power of harmonious creative intelligence, incompatible with domination. The Europe of its people in subsidiary symbiosis – not that of the old autarchic states controlled by economic oligarchies – having suffered so much due to this ignorance – i.e. two world wars – should take the lead of harmonious intelligence. Not to colonise as in the past, but to help accomplish true democracy in the world, the creative democracies, the cultural mutation of humanity initiated during the European Renaissance, as explained briefly in the conclusion. In addition, the smaller countries who suffer from the larger states are the most motivated to perform this mutation.
Lamentably, humanity has not yet reached being able to live a fully mature balanced harmonious intelligence in its three forms. The historical imbalance and disharmony of intelligence was even more accentuated from the European renaissance onwards, the aforementioned second great cultural mutation of humanity. Since then, the religious traditions have not seen in the growth of the technosciences the need as well as the opportunity to encourage a regeneration of axiological and liberation intelligence. Thus, the progressively accelerating exponential growth of the technosciences – the engine of material progress – has not been accompanied by an equivalent growth of axiological intelligence – whose main concern is social justice and well-being. Nor founded on the social practises of liberation intelligence – concerned with happiness by freeing us from all submission; both intelligences needed in order to meet the social impacts of technosciences products and services. From a fundamental perspective, most of the crisis we recurrently suffer – notably the multiple ecological crisis that actually threaten life on earth – are due to the disharmony between these three dimensions of intelligence, that is, the near hegemony of functional compared to an underdeveloped axiological intelligence, which is in crisis, as well as a nearly ignored liberation intelligence. Although functional intelligence must have a say in every human matter, its own method of abstraction limits it, it should not be the sole voice, and neither should we search in it for the solution of all of our problems; additionally, not all that one can do with functional intelligence, should be. The causes of our crisis and degeneration are multiple and the need to divert the curse of humanity´s destruction is urgent. I will now focus upon the near ignorance of liberation intelligence. We should be fully aware that the maturity of intelligence and so human wellbeing by being sensitive to the whole process of living without deceiving ourselves depends on the awakening of liberating intelligence through education, understood as helping to flourish what is already there.
The main adversary to the social flourishing of harmonious intelligence is the society of domination and exploitation, a violent society organised in autarchic states apparently democratic but under control of economic oligarchies with the help of political parties and the media. It is the result of a perverted exercise of the creative constitutive capacities, particularly the ignorance of liberation intelligence. Only by being fully aware of this basic corruption, of its falsity, an unacceptable counter value, we will have the great energy proper of liberating intelligence to realise the new value, the creative democracies presented below. The pressure of poverty due to terribly unequal distributions of wealth in these societies is one of the main causes of the progressive decrease, already from birth, of the human potential for liberty and creativity, the gifts of liberating intelligence. It has an inevitable consequence, the immaturity, disharmony or even degradation of human intelligence: war is the greatest of world industries; the annual budget of the Spanish Army alone is double that of the United Nations. Advertisement is the second greatest worldwide industry, focusing on the manipulation of the human mind – even political leaders are too frequently products of marketing – showcasing the effects of a lack of liberation. Thus, the intelligence of the social majority becomes short-sighted programmed intelligence. Instead of conscious practise of all creative capacities, investigating the direct perception and evaluation of dynamic facts, which indeed is the proper activity of intelligence, it becomes mechanical thinking, action and reaction, the proper domain of intelligent machines. This mechanical thought revolves around the memory, of accumulated experiences and knowledge. A thought that is primarily self-centred, short-sighted and driven by desires, expectations and fears. This thought projects the past onto the future, rather than perceiving and enjoying the freedom and continuous novelty of reality. An intelligence strongly bond to memory and routine does not enjoy real freedom, so gradually atrophies becoming a crippled intelligence. This programmed intelligence divorces from true free intelligence and installs itself in the acquisition and management of feelings, knowledge and skills, and is shaped by them; in a given culture’s narrative with which it identifies, lessening real freedom and thus true intelligence. This identification makes the mind itself feel fragmented, as well as separated from others, prone to be in conflict with other forms of culture. Programmed intelligence does not truly use the full capacity of the brain and so it degenerates. Therefore, programmed intelligences are weak intelligences not fit to face the continuous change of the current global multicultural world, easily manipulated by the power of domination, particularly by those who control information, as explained below. Indeed, there is a vicious circle between intellectual and economic poverty, one increasing the other. We need to reverse this circle into a virtuous circle where the improvement in the distribution of wealth and the flourishing of harmonious intelligence through permanent education, going together and energising one another.
For awakened, harmonious, creative and free intelligence, technologies of information, particularly artificial intelligence, are a great opportunity for knowledge and learning distribution and to widen basic social participation. That is, to help extending creative capacities of intra-action like communication and symbiosis, increasing the possibilities to work and research in dynamic teams as well as in teams of teams. Artificial intelligence can also free ourselves from unexciting already known tasks in order to allow our dedication to truly creative endeavours. Thus, it contributes to the growth of human intelligence and democracy, with the immense benefits that it brings. However, these technologies represent serious dangers for immature programmed intelligences. Among others, they are an easy prey of the new forms of domination power. The vulnerability of immature programmed intelligence to the power of imposition is nothing new in the history of mankind. Domination has always thrived on the peoples’ ignorance of their innate creative intelligence, in particular liberating intelligence, their true power to attain a good life. But now this domination, the main adversary to the flourishing of harmonious intelligence, is more subtle than ever. I will only mention three hindrances to the development of the harmonious intelligence. On the one hand, people become increasingly addicted and overly stimulated by technologies of information. And so, they become exposed to behaviour scrutiny, prediction, control and eventually alteration, in a certain sense programming our behaviour, reinforcing our programmed intelligence. And these are for the profit of those who invest in internet platforms with data extraction technologies such as Big Data. Google knows far more about people future behaviour, those they call ‘users’, than those people indeed know about themselves. So, it sells these predictions and makes huge profits out of it. Thus, the power of domination is not identified anymore with possession of land as it was in the pre-industrial era, or later with the ownership of the means of industrial production, but now with a kind of possession of immature programmed intelligences, through intelligent machines allowing predicting and then modifying the behaviour of the programmed intelligence. On the other hand, at labour, programmed intelligences are exposed to competition with intelligent machines, more efficient than humans when just applying acquired knowledge. For example, programs such as Watson can easily access and learn from many sources of information, for instance the clinical records of many patients in order to make increasingly accurate medical diagnosis. However, to a competent physician, medicine is much more and so different to just applying information. A third announced threat is the so-called singularity of super-intelligent autonomous machines, potentially beyond human understanding and control. To face the possibly negative social impacts of this, attention has been focussed on how intelligent machines should be built; keeping them aligned with human values, to become what is called ethical machines. It looks for machines that obey a specific ethic in order to make them more beneficial, robust, reliable, easy to inspect, and safe. This is important, but insufficient, particularly in front of autonomous intelligent weapons. There are enough cases of similar diagnoses and remedies applied to much simpler problems with few results. For example, the short-term profit model that we have created for transportation is not only unsustainable but causes more death on the road each year than all current wars together. As said before, the key to a for all beneficial intra-action between human intelligence and technology, particularly artificial intelligence, is to reach, through permanent education, a mature harmonious human intelligence – with a focused attention on liberation – in the majority of the population, allowing their wise democratic intervention on all important decisions, especially technological development decisions. This democratization of techhnosciences would change them profoundly for the benefit of all humanity. For this, technoscience research and application projects should be assessed by axiological intelligence experts in collaboration with technoscience experts, and made comprehensible to citizens, not in its details but in its objectives, means and requirements, dangers and benefits, allowing thus democratic intervention in research and development. Furthermore, the collaboration of technosciences and axiological experts is essential to create and keep healthy strong research and development teams, so necessary for efficiency in front of complexity. Above all, there is a much-needed mutation of our cultural species. It is not a utopic thought but an evidence resulting from a clear intelligence of the actual world, that is, of ourselves, of our imbalanced intelligence in crisis; a must of which hangs the survival of humanity. Therefore, the key to it, as said before, is a mature harmonious intelligence active in the majority of population, removing all impediments to the natural flourishing of something we all have from birth, the all-powerful liberating intelligence and the unity it brings, that is, the pluralism proper of creativity without division, conflict and violence.
Conclusion: a mutation of a cultural species
In order to accomplish this mutation, first we must put our totally free, creative and harmonic intelligence, as well as its education, at the centre of human life. Intelligence instead of accumulated knowledge over the ages and thoughts – the so called Knowledge Society – which are prone to manipulation by domination power, and used for the depredation of nature as well as the imposition of behaviour upon people. Instead of domination power, we should understand creative power to be the true human power, the only one capable of a creative revolt to free humanity from exploitation society. We must also learn to put production at the service of creativity instead of the inverse. Reversing the actual economy: from an unsustainable taxing productivity-consumerism information economy at the service of plutocracy, into a self-gratifying creativity educational intelligence economy at the service of life. This new economy can be sustainable even austere and not centred around production and consumerism due to its main assets of efficient and self-rewarding permanent education and creativity. Their reward comes with enjoying the activity itself, so it is not completely dependent on the results or products, their marketing and consumption. For instance, true artists let not their merchants dominate them. An economy and politics that is truly concerned with the flourishing of creative intelligence in all of the population through wealth distribution, social justice and permanent education. For this to occur and to avoid intelligence perversion and progressive degradation becoming a mass of greedy consumers destroying the Earth, we first need in each society a minority devoted to a high level of liberating intelligence, so they can become a reference for the majority. The goodness of policies should be judged having in mind these basic values. Teams and teams of teams at all levels of the subsidiary social symbiosis should decide these policies. Thus, making possible a true creative democracy, a society where power is distributed along all of the fabric of our society, and where everyone can realise their greatest possibility: to truly enjoy the mastery of life through a free and creative intelligence in all activities; realising true democracy, the power of people’s creative intelligence. In creative democracies, the important presence of spontaneous free creative intelligence acting in teams and meaningful in itself, come to put an end to the total dominion of means ends individualistic action proper of productive exploitation societies. We should realise that only these multicultural, very dynamic, creative democracies, characterised by the unity and harmony of functional, axiological and liberating intelligence, can direct technosciences to a good life for all, by leaving behind the old, but without future alliance between technosciences, plutocracy and imperialism. For instance, declaring illegal the extraction or robbing of data from people and applying programs such as big data to predict, control and modify the behaviour of the people. In summary, this is the mutation of our cultural species that we desperately need. To mutate from the Homo Sapiens, the one who knows in order to dominate into the Homo Quaerens, the one who questions in order to investigate and create, to enjoy and put themselves at the service of humanity and life. This is the proposal that can be found in the homoquaerens.info Blog.